Normal {stats} | R Documentation |

Density, distribution function, quantile function and random
generation for the normal distribution with mean equal to `mean`

and standard deviation equal to `sd`

.

dnorm(x, mean=0, sd=1, log = FALSE) pnorm(q, mean=0, sd=1, lower.tail = TRUE, log.p = FALSE) qnorm(p, mean=0, sd=1, lower.tail = TRUE, log.p = FALSE) rnorm(n, mean=0, sd=1)

`x,q` |
vector of quantiles. |

`p` |
vector of probabilities. |

`n` |
number of observations. If `length(n) > 1` , the length
is taken to be the number required. |

`mean` |
vector of means. |

`sd` |
vector of standard deviations. |

`log, log.p` |
logical; if TRUE, probabilities p are given as log(p). |

`lower.tail` |
logical; if TRUE (default), probabilities are
P[X <= x], otherwise, P[X > x]. |

If `mean`

or `sd`

are not specified they assume the default
values of `0`

and `1`

, respectively.

The normal distribution has density

*f(x) = 1/(sqrt(2 pi) sigma) e^-((x - mu)^2/(2 sigma^2))
*

where *mu* is the mean of the distribution and
*sigma* the standard deviation.

`qnorm`

is based on Wichura's algorithm AS 241 which provides
precise results up to about 16 digits.

`dnorm`

gives the density,
`pnorm`

gives the distribution function,
`qnorm`

gives the quantile function, and
`rnorm`

generates random deviates.

For `pnorm`

, based on

Cody, W. D. (1993)
Algorithm 715: SPECFUN – A portable FORTRAN package of special
function routines and test drivers.
*ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software* **19**, 22–32.

For `qnorm`

, the code is a C translation of

Wichura, M. J. (1988)
Algorithm AS 241: The Percentage Points of the Normal Distribution.
*Applied Statistics*, **37**, 477–484.

For `rnorm`

, see RNG for how to select the algorithm and
for references to the supplied methods.

Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988)
*The New S Language*.
Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.

Johnson, N. L., Kotz, S. and Balakrishnan, N. (1995)
*Continuous Univariate Distributions*, volume 1, chapter 13.
Wiley, New York.

`runif`

and `.Random.seed`

about random number
generation, and `dlnorm`

for the *Log*normal distribution.

dnorm(0) == 1/ sqrt(2*pi) dnorm(1) == exp(-1/2)/ sqrt(2*pi) dnorm(1) == 1/ sqrt(2*pi*exp(1)) ## Using "log = TRUE" for an extended range : par(mfrow=c(2,1)) plot(function(x) dnorm(x, log=TRUE), -60, 50, main = "log { Normal density }") curve(log(dnorm(x)), add=TRUE, col="red",lwd=2) mtext("dnorm(x, log=TRUE)", adj=0) mtext("log(dnorm(x))", col="red", adj=1) plot(function(x) pnorm(x, log=TRUE), -50, 10, main = "log { Normal Cumulative }") curve(log(pnorm(x)), add=TRUE, col="red",lwd=2) mtext("pnorm(x, log=TRUE)", adj=0) mtext("log(pnorm(x))", col="red", adj=1) ## if you want the so-called 'error function' erf <- function(x) 2 * pnorm(x * sqrt(2)) - 1 ## (see Abramowitz and Stegun 29.2.29) ## and the so-called 'complementary error function' erfc <- function(x) 2 * pnorm(x * sqrt(2), lower = FALSE)

[Package *stats* version 2.5.0 Index]