split {base} R Documentation

Divide into Groups

Description

`split` divides the data in the vector `x` into the groups defined by `f`. The replacement forms replace values corresponding to such a division. `unsplit` reverses the effect of `split`.

Usage

```split(x, f, drop = FALSE, ...)
split(x, f, drop = FALSE, ...) <- value
unsplit(value, f, drop = FALSE)
```

Arguments

 `x` vector or data frame containing values to be divided into groups. `f` a “factor” in the sense that `as.factor(f)` defines the grouping, or a list of such factors in which case their interaction is used for the grouping. `drop` logical indicating if levels that do not occur should be dropped (if `f` is a `factor` or a list). `value` a list of vectors or data frames compatible with a splitting of `x`. Recycling applies if the lengths do not match. `...` further potential arguments passed to methods.

Details

`split` and `split<-` are generic functions with default and `data.frame` methods.

`f` is recycled as necessary and if the length of `x` is not a multiple of the length of `f` a warning is printed. `unsplit` works only with lists of vectors. The data frame method can also be used to split a matrix into a list of matrices, and the replacement form likewise, provided they are invoked explicitly.

Any missing values in `f` are dropped together with the corresponding values of `x`.

Value

The value returned from `split` is a list of vectors containing the values for the groups. The components of the list are named by the used factor levels given by `f`. (If `f` is longer than `x` then some of the components will be of zero length.)
The replacement forms return their right hand side. `unsplit` returns a vector for which `split(x, f)` equals `value`

References

Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988) The New S Language. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.

`cut`

Examples

```require(stats)
n <- 10; nn <- 100
g <- factor(round(n * runif(n * nn)))
x <- rnorm(n * nn) + sqrt(as.numeric(g))
xg <- split(x, g)
boxplot(xg, col = "lavender", notch = TRUE, varwidth = TRUE)
sapply(xg, length)
sapply(xg, mean)

## Calculate z-scores by group

z <- unsplit(lapply(split(x, g), scale), g)
tapply(z, g, mean)

# or

z <- x
split(z, g) <- lapply(split(x, g), scale)
tapply(z, g, sd)

## Split a matrix into a list by columns
ma <- cbind(x = 1:10, y = (-4:5)^2)
split(ma, col(ma))

split(1:10, 1:2)
```

[Package base version 2.5.0 Index]